Battle for Eurasia (I)

"An uneasy situation has emerged in Arab world, shattered by revolutions; its further destabilization can break several countries into small pieces. This is the scenario they’ve prepared for us and now they will try even harder to bring it life. But it will never happen anyway." Dmitry Medvedev, Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia, 22th of February 2011

During the last 10 years there was a tidal wave of revolutions at the post-Soviet spaces (in Central European and Central Asian countries). These revolutions — at least those of them that ended — caused the change of power and political re-orientation of the above-mentioned states. All those changes had one similar violence-excluding scenario. All of them were portrayed by mass media as democratic revolutions, led by younger people, who needed freedom and wanted to break free from pro-Soviet, semi-democratic corrupted political systems. Those «color revolutions» or «Orange revolutions» (named after revolution in Ukraine) were presented to us as a logical and complementary continuation of «velvet revolutions». This was the way Eastern European countries started to unyoke themselves from the Soviet Union. We’ll see however that these political changes were neither coincidental, nor caused by political will of opposition. Those were carefully planned geostrategic operations,which were organized and controlled from without the countries of action. 

In the 20th century American global supremacy replaced the British one. One dominating maritime power changed another, but approach to the global affairs — especially the continental ones — didn’t. This persistent necessity to maintain its presence in the center of Eurasia was the main priority of any major state policy (Britain in the 19thcentury and America in the 20th century). And by all means it led to reduction of Russian authority in this area, which was full of Russia’s neighboring states, by the way. You should take into account the theory of continental presence, if you want to understand the rules of Russo-American and Russo-English relationships within the framework of the Great Game that took place at Central Asia in the previous century. In fact, both England and America obeyed the same geopolitical laws and geographical limits. Their itch for the world supremacy should have got over two obligatory obstacles, caused by island situation. Firstly it was mastering the ocean spaces (which led to their naval power) and then the obligatory integration (not to remain isolated) with geographical world center with its lots of people and the majority of energy resources, where the history of the world was being written. This aim was clear from Anglo-Saxon political doctrine, which defined relations between countries as the rivalry between so-called maritime powers (England and America) and continental powers (Germany, Russia, China). Halford Mackinder (1861-1947) — one of the fathers-architect of modern geopolitics — has forged the term «Heartland», which was situated in the center of Eurasia. It is an area of modern Siberia and Caucasus. Mackinder was afraid (it was a period before the Second World War) that this zone will become completely sovereign. America then would be kept away from world dominion because of its overseas position. According to his words, the biggest danger was the possible union of two great continental states — Germany and Russia. That’s why he claimed to establish common front for concerned countries to prevent Russian-German coalition. In 1945 he considered the USSR to be the supreme power, which is able to unite this «Heartland» due to its sheer size and influence. So, by default the USSR was the main rival of America.
According to the second theory by Nicholas Spykman (1893-1943), the main zone meant not just the «Heart of the World», but rather and interim area between «Heartland» and coastal seas. This theory, complementing the first one, showed how important was an idea to deprive the main continental power of outlet to the sea (former USSR and Russia since 1991). For this sake common front was to be established, thus creating a buffer area between the USSR and neighboring seas (the North Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea). According to historian Nataliya Narotchnitskaya, Russia is still prevented from getting a sea outlet. The matter here is the attempt «to keep the north of Russia off the area of world energy ellipse, which consists of Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Iran, Persian Gulf, the Northern Caucasus (Russian part) and Afghanistan. The point is to seal access to the gulfs, seas and oceans, important energy recourses for Russia. And in the end, the point is to press Russia back to the north and east, as far from the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas as possible. It is allegedly the first penetration line — it stretches from the Balkans to Ukraine (to control the Aegean and the Black Seas) and the second line, which stretches from Egypt to Afghanistan (thus, allowing to control the Red, Caspian Seas and the Gulf). There’s nothing new to this strategy, only some oil interests». Also the subject is to separate Russia from Western Europe in order to prevent the continental unions between two dominating states. In the beginning of 21st century they are Germany — the first European power —and strengthening Russia.

Back to the origins of color revolutions: division project for Russia

Intention to weaken and split Russia into many pieces is as old as the hills. In the 19th century, during the period of great geopolitical game at the territory of Central Asia and Caucasus, Russian and British Empires were rivals. England then has clearly understood an importance of lands Russia has recently conquered — the Ottoman Empire — and its threatening factor. These territories open the way to Mediterranean and Black Seas for Russia. Since 1835 England has tried to destabilize Russia via supplying weapons to the Caucasus (mind the case of English schooner «Vixen») and creating Chechen and Circassian committees at the Parisian Congress in 1856, where Crimean war was concluded.

Caucasus front will likely be a Russian underbelly in the 20th and 21st centuries alike. England and America will try to use it in order to destabilize Russia. In the beginning of the 21st century leaders of Russian Muslim republics in the Caucasus and Central Asia tried to unleash wars for independence. There were two contestants in the opposition: both were supporters of territorial nationalism and common Turkish union (Turkish intelligence played an important role here by preaching Turkish reunion). Aim of separatists was to gain the disposition of Western democratic countries. They called to help Caucasian republics to get the sovereignty at the Versailles Congress. Bolsheviks has given no chance for such separatist sentiments though. People, who have stood for independence since 1992, had to live in voluntary exile. The first wave has immigrated to Istanbul and it has damaged the reputation of the movement, mixing it with Turkish expansionism. The second wave went mostly to Europe, France and Germany. At that time Bashkir Zeki Velidi considered France as a «center of Turkish-Muslim war against Russia». Polish Prime-minister Józef Piłsudski called this movement «Prometheism». Soon its adherents started publishing a magazine of theirs in France, Germany, England, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Turkey and Romania. These people took English and Polish sides, when the Second World War was started and Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union was signed. This movement had considerable financial support in Poland. And French «France-East» committee — being under the auspices of Senate leader Paul Dume — rendered them political support as well. Their main aim was to create Caucasian Federation of the Swiss kind.
After defeat of Poland, Nazi strategists carried on with this movement. They’ve planned to split the USSR into many little territorial entities, which would be easier to control and conquer. That’s why Germans had established SS legions in Russian Turkestan and similar divisions in the Muslim Caucasus. After the Soviet victory its borders were recognized by the League of Nations, so «Prometheism» movement turned to America, who seconded «Prometheus League of Atlantic Charter» establishment. The movement had the backing of Turkish Muslims, then Catholics, anti-communists and national socialists as well. Suddenly the movement was supported by the CIA. During the Cold War the CIA had used it against the USSR. It caused great ideological confusion, which is why «Prometheism» movement developed furthermore, constantly remaining considerably anti-Russian. In general, we can call it a sort of united orange-green front, absolutely heterogeneous coalitions of Western and Caucasian Muslim separatist agenda aimed against Russia.